• 藍色版面
  • 綠色版面
  • 橘色版面
  • 粉紅色版面
  • 棕色版面
帳號:guest(120.119.126.29)          離開系統
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  

詳目顯示

本論文引用網址:     
研究生: 梁魁元
研究生(外文): Kuei-Yuan Liang
論文名稱: 極輕量RFID雜湊原件與認證機制
論文名稱(外文): Ultralightweight RFID Hash Primitives and Authentication Schemes
指導教授: 林峻立
學位類別: 碩士
校院名稱: 樹德科技大學
系所名稱: 資訊工程系碩士班
論文出版年: 2011
畢業學年度: 99
語文別: 中文
論文頁數: 92
中文關鍵詞: 無線射頻識別技術認證機制Ultralightweight遺傳規劃
外文關鍵詞: RFIDauthenticationultralightweightgenetic programming
相關次數:
  • 被引用:0
  • 點閱:8
  • 評分:*****
  • 下載:0
  • 書目收藏:0
近年來由於無線射頻識別技術(Radio Frequency Identification, RFID)的蓬勃發展, 使得RFID的應用領域更加廣泛。而根據RFID應用的不同,所使用的RFID成本也會根據使用的應用隨著改變,例如像電子護照、ETC…等,就必須使用高成本的RFID電子標籤。由於高成本的電子標籤具有強大的運算能力來保護使用者的隱私,避免攻擊者從中獲取使用者的相關資料(位置、隱私等)或者破壞電子標籤的有效性。近年來已有學者針對電子標籤的成本進行分類,最著名的是由國內暨南大學簡教授對電子標籤提出的四大分類,根據成本的高低可分為:Full-Fledged>Simple>Lightweight>Ultralightweight。而隨著成本的不同,能支援的安全特性也跟著不同。同時RFID的認證機制也會根據其的成本高低在設計上也會有所不同。本文將針對Ultralightweight類型電子標籤進行RFID認證機制的設計。

  Ultralightweight 類型的電子標籤,其中邏輯閘個數大約有5K-10K,而使用在安全相關部分只有250-4K個可以使用。Ultralightweight電子標籤晶片中的邏輯閘數、運算複雜度、能源耗損都是在其他類型中是屬於最低。而在內部晶片中只有提供簡易的運算能力(例如: XOR、AND、OR,等)。在2007年簡教授除了針對電子標籤成本高低進行分類之外同時對Ultralightweight 類型提出認證機制(SASI)。但經由多方學者研究分析指出還是存在一些安全缺陷。而隔年López學者針對SASI進行改善並提出 Gossamer認證機制,但我們發現López學者所設計的認證機制,理念過於複雜導致安全分析不易,因此我們無法分析此認證機制的安全性。因此,本研究基於改善SASI安全性的弱點,並且簡化認證機制的複雜性。本文利用遺傳規劃的方式設計出一個極輕量級的雜湊函數原件,並且在有限的資源中設計在Ultralightweight RFID認證機制上。因此,本論文研究成果有二:

(1)  利用遺傳規劃的方式設計出一個極輕量的Hash Function,並且在設計認證機制的同時可以達到簡化目的並且具有高度安全性。

(2)  設計出一個Ultralightweight RFID認證機制,並且能有效抵擋SASI認證機制所遭遇的安全性問題。而在效能部分,不管是在晶片中的邏輯閘數、運算複雜度或Clock Cycle都能符合在一個Ultralightweight電子標籤中。


Recently by the rapid progress of Radio Frequency Identification technologies, extensive RFID applications have been developed. According to different RFID applications, the cost of RFID used in RFID applications is changed in accordance with the RFID application . For example e-passports and , ETC, must use high-cost RFID tags. The high-cost RFID tags with strong computing power can protect user privacy and prevent the attacker from obtaining user information  (location, privacy, etc.) or destroying the effectiveness of tags. Recent researchers have been classified the cost of tags. The most famous is  Professor Chien from Jinan University who divides tags into four categories, according to the level of cost: Full-Fledged > Simple > Lightweight > Ultralightweight.
RFID tag with different cost , also support different security level. Therefore, the design of RFID authentication is change according to different cost of RFID. This paper will focus on the design of RFID authentication scheme with ultralightweight tags.

There are about 5K-10K logic gates in an ultralightweight tag, and only 250-4Kcan be used for security function. In the chip of ultralightweight tag, the mumber of logic gates, computational complexity and, energy dissipation are the lowest than the other types of tags. The ultralightweight tag only provides simple operations like XOR, AND, OR, etc. In 2007.
Chien proposed an ultralightweight RFID authentication scheme (SASI). However, several researches pointed out that SASI has some security flaws. The next year, López proposed Gossamer authentication scheme to improve SASI. But we found that the design of López authentication scheme design is too complex to analyze its security. Therefore, this research is based on improving the SASI security weaknesses, and simplifies the complexity of authentication scheme.

We use genetic programming to design an ultralightweight hash function primitive, and to design an ultralightweight RFID authentication scheme base on the Ultralightweight hash function primitive. The major research results include:

(1)  We use genetic programming approach to design an ultralightweight hash function, and design an authentication scheme with simplified design high security.
(2)  We design an ultralightweight RFID authentication scheme which can effectively resist the SASI security problems. In chip performance, the number of logic gates , the computational complexity and need of Clock cycle can conform to ultralightweight tags


目錄
中文摘要  i
英文摘要  iii
目錄  vi
表目錄  viii
圖目錄  ix
一、  緒論  1
1.1  研究背景  1
1.2  研究動機  7
1.3  研究目的與貢獻  9
1.4  論文架構  11
二、  RFID認證機制  13
2.1  簡介  13
2.2  特性及需求  14
2.3  RFID電子標籤與認證機制分類  19
三、  Ultralightweight RFID認證機制  22
3.1  簡介  22
3.2  相關研究  23
3.3  UMAP認證機制  23
3.3.1  M2AP  24
3.3.1.1  M2AP認證機制-基本假設  24
3.3.1.2  M2AP認證機制  26
3.3.2  LMAP  28
3.3.2.1  LMAP認證機制-基本假設  29
3.3.3.3  LMAP認證機制  30
3.3.3  EMAP  33
3.3.3.1  EMAP認證機制-基本假設  34
3.3.3.1  EMAP認證機制  35
3.4  SASI認證機制  38
3.4.1  SASI認證機制-基本假設  39
3.4.2  SASI認證機制  40
3.4.3  SASI所遭遇的安全性問題  43
3.4.3.1  同步破壞攻擊  44
3.4.3.2  重送攻擊  48
3.4.3.3  向前安全攻擊  49
3.5  ASURAP認證機制  51
3.5.1  ASURAP認證機制-基本假設  51
3.5.2  ASURAP認證機制  53
3.6  Gossamer認證機制  56
3.6.1  Gossamer認證機制-基本假設  56
3.6.2  Gossamer認證機制  58
3.6.3  Gossamer認證機制的缺點  62
四、  Ultralightweight Hash Function  63
4.1  雜湊函數(Hash Function)  63
4.2  遺傳規劃 (Genetic Programming)  65
4.3  實作  67
4.4  設計極輕量級雜湊函數所需參數  68
4.5  實驗結果和Hash Function的安全分析  69
五、  本論文所提出的認證機制  78
5.1  簡介  78
5.2  Ultralightweight RFID認證機制  78
5.2.1  電子標籤認證階段  79
5.2.2  相互認證階段  79
5.2.3  金鑰更新階段  80
5.3  認證機制之安全分析  81
5.4  效能分析  83
六、  結論與研究貢獻  86
6.1  結論  86
6.2  研究貢獻  86
參考文獻  88
簡歷  92


參考文獻
[1]奚正德,張克章,RFID相關應用與安全機制簡介,資訊安全專論,2006
[2]林峻立,極輕量RFID 之應用與安全機制,資通安全專論T98008.
[3]簡宏宇,陳哲豪, "適用於EPC Class 1 Generation 2 RFID 標籤之安全認證機制", Proceedings of the 16th Information Security Conference, 2006.
[4]RFID 發展動態電子半月刊,”全球面對RFID隱私權的發展現況
”,http://rfid.more.org.tw/epaper5/ver05_c.html” .
[5]Chien, H.Y., Chen, C. H.(2007) "Mutual Authentication Protocol for RFID Conforming to EPC Class 1 Generation 2 Standards", Computers Standards & Interfaces. Vol 29/2 pp. 254-259.
[6]Lopez, P. P., Hernandez-Castro, J. C., Estevez-Tapiador, J.M., and RibaFrda, A., (2006), LMAP: A Real Lightweight Mutual Authentication Protocol for Low-Cost RFID Tags, Proc. Second Workshop RFID Security.
[7]Lopez, P. P., Hernandez-Castro, J. C., Estevez-Tapiador, J.M., and Ribagorda, A., (2006), EMAP: An Efficient Mutual Authentication Protocol for Low-Cost  RFID Tags, Proc,OTM Federated Conf. and Workshop: IS Workshop.
[8]Lopez, P. P., Hernandez-Castro J. C., Estevez-Tapiador J.M., and Ribagorda A., (2006). M2AP: A Minimalist Mutual-Authentication Protocol for Low-Cost RFID Tags, Proc, Int’l Conf. Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing (UIC’06), pp. 912-923
[9]Chien, H. Y.(Oct.-Dec.2007), SASI:A new Ultralightweight RFID Authentication Protocol Providing Strong Authentication and Strong Integrity, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 4(4),pp.337–340.
[10]Lopez, P. P., Hernandez-Castro, J. C., Tapiador, J. M. E., and Ribagorda, A.,(2008), Advances in Ultralightweight Cryptography for Low-cost RFID Tags: Gossamer Protocol, In Workshop on Information Security Applications, Volume 5379 of LNCS, pp. 56-68.
[11]林峻立,張立志,具成本效益之RFID認證機制,2006年
[12]Tieyan Li and Guilin Wang(2007), Security Analysis of Two Ultra-Lightweight
RFID Authentication Protocols, Proc. 22nd IFIP TC-11 Int’1Information Security Conference.
[13]Tieyan Li and R.H. Deng(2007), Vulnerability Analysis of EMAP-An Efficient RFID Mutual Authentication Protoco, Proc. Second Int’1 Conference. Availability Reliability,and Security (AReS’07)
[14]Sun, H. M., Ting W. C., and Wang, K. H.,(2009), On the Security Of Chien''s Ultralightweight RFID Authentication Protocol, IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing.
[15]Koza, J. R. (1992), Genetic Programming: On the Programming of Computers
by Means of Natural Selection, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA.
[16] 林峻立,張國展,2005 EPC Class-1 Generation-2 RFID 認證機制之研究
[17]Hernandez-Castro, J. C., Estevez-Tapiador, J. M., Ribagorda- Garnacho, A., and Ramos-Alvarez, B.(2006), Wheedham: An automatically designed block cipher by means of genetic programming, IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation, July 16-21.
[18]Lopez, P. P., (2008), Lightweight Cryptography in Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems Ph.D. THESIS Computer Science Department Leganés.
[19]  Bill, P., and Zongker D.,(1995), The lil-gp genetic programming system,
http://garage.cps.msu.edu/software/lil-gp/lilgpindex.html.
[20]Walker, J., (2008), ENT A Pseudorandom Number Sequence Test Program,
http://www.fourmilab.ch/random
[21]Marsaglia, G. (1995), DIEHARD The Marsaglia Random Number CDROM including the Diehard Battery of Tests of Randomness, http://stat.fsu.edu/pub/diehard/
[22] Y. Cui, K. Kobara, K. Matsuura, and H. Imai, “Lightweight asymmetric privacy-preserving authentication protocols secure against active attack,” In Proc. of PerSec’07, IEEE Computer Society, 2007.
[23] A. Juels, D. Molnar, and D. Wagner, “Security and privacy issues in e-passports,” In Proc. of SecureComm’05, IEEE Computer Society, 2005.
[24] S. Karthikeyan and M. Nesterenko, “RFID security without extensive cryptography,” In Proc. of SASN’05, 2005.
[25] D. Nguyen Duc, J. Park, H. Lee, and Kwangjo K, “Enhancing security of EPCglobal Gen-2 RFID tag against traceability and cloning,” In Proc. of Symposium on Cryptography and Information Security, 2006.
[26] 陳昱仁,廖耕億,RFID概論,2007,
[27] Birthday Spacings test
http://www.cs.hku.hk/cisc/projects/va/details/birthday2.html
[28] 資訊與熵,http://binfo.ym.edu.tw/bch/phys_bch/entropy.htm
[29] 亂度(熵),http://web1.nsc.gov.tw/ct.aspx?xItem=8045&ctNode=40&mp=1,科學發展,2004年5月


 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20120817)
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊
 
* *