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研究生: 林宏偉
研究生(外文): Hong-Wei Lin
論文名稱: 以社會認知及需求理論探討影響聯勤海用總庫退伍人員之職業選擇
論文名稱(外文): The study of occupation choice affected by the social cognition and the demand theory for Combine logistic command Of Depot Naval of Materials discharged serviceman
指導教授: 許寶東
指導教授(外文): Pao-Tung Hsu
學位類別: 碩士
校院名稱: 樹德科技大學
系所名稱: 經營管理研究所
論文出版年: 2009
畢業學年度: 97
語文別: 中文
論文頁數: 96
中文關鍵詞: 社會認知理論Maslow的需求理論退伍職業選擇
外文關鍵詞: social cognition theoryMaslow demand theorydischarged from the Armed servicesoccupation elects
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行政院主計處公布我國公務人員退休概況,其中顯示軍職人員平均退休年齡為28.7歲,且年齡層有降低之趨勢,顯示國軍人員退伍仍正值青壯年時期,這個時期的人,對於工作的穩定性、持恆性及管理經驗是最為豐富;以一般勞工工作須滿25年或滿65歲才退休,對於國軍退伍人員,尚有30年以上的生產力,對於生涯規劃更應及早展開。本研究即以引用Bandura(1986)之社會認知理論及Maslow的需求層級理論,並結合人口統計變數來探討哪些成因真正影响退伍人員之職業選擇,並作為未來國軍退伍人員參考。
本研究旨在以社會認知、需求理論探討影響國軍人員退伍後職業選擇之原因。具體而言,本研究目的如下:
一、藉人口統計變數探討職業選擇之相關性,人口統計變數包含年齡、婚姻狀況、階級、經濟狀況、工作年資、教育程度等變數。
二、瞭解軍旅生涯中,接受科層式組織文化、環境,對於退伍後面對多元化工作及產生不同組織文化,所謂自我效能、目標認同高低對職業選擇之影響程度。
三、藉由需求理論探討個人的需求,決定每人於不同階段、情境,所預達成之目標,面對職業選擇時之影響。
本研究的主要對象為現行服務聯勤海用總庫人員為研究對象,計發出問卷192份、回收192份,回收率100%,有效問卷計158份、有效問卷率82.29%,問卷施測回收後,即將有效問卷進行編碼、登錄,所採用統計方法為描述性統計、信度、單因子變異數、典型相關分析等,經資料分析,結果顯示:
一、人口統計變數:本研究樣本特性,為年齡41歲以上最多(34.2%);婚姻狀況以已婚為多數(51.3%);階級為上士以下為多數(48.1%);經濟狀況以35,000-45,000為多數(38%);工作年資以5年以下最多(36.7%);教育程度以高中以上-大學畢業為多數(62.7%)。
二、人口統計變項對社會認知、需求理論均無顯著差異。
三、人口統計變項對職業選擇差異情形;其中年齡、婚姻狀況、階級、工作年資有差異,其餘均無顯著差異。
四、社會認知對需求理論:本研究實證結果,由典型相關的模型中,社會認知的自我效能與需求理重疊係數為59.927%,且解釋量高達94.62%;與學者許士軍(民88年)研究,對人類的多種需求按其性質,由低而高分為5個層次,需求層次愈低,強度愈大,層次愈高愈屬心理因素,其需求深度與廣度愈無止境,各層次需求依次為生理的需求、安全、社交、自尊及自我實現的需求,相互印證。
五、社會認知與職業選擇:本研究實證結果,由典型相關的模型社會認知自我效能重疊係數為5.827%,且自我效能解釋量高達72.82%,與Albert Bandura(1977)理論相互驗證。
六、需求理論與職業選擇:本研究實證結果,由典型相關的模型需求理論中自我實現、尊重需求、社會需求、安全需顯示,職業選擇除最基本的生理需求外,亦將其它因素考量進去,其中以自我實現最甚,這表示對工作未來前曕性的影響程度,更甚於生理需求。
經本研究實證結果人口計變數中,除部份因年齡、婚姻、階級、工作年資有職業選擇部份顯著差異,另社會認知、需求理論、職業選擇相關分析中,又以社會認知自我效能解釋程度最高,社會認知理論可用來探討外在因素如何透過自我效能及結果期待等因素來影響行為。因此有幾點建議作為個人職業選擇之參考:1、認真思考,強化自我條件2、進修的選擇,培養第二專長3、利用時間與時機,達事半功倍。
An announcement, made by General of Budget, Accounting, and Statistics, Executive Yuan, profile the Taiwan government employee retirement in which indicates the average discharged age is 28.7 and with a downward trend. As a prime of life, serviceman who leaves military in this age is steady, perseverant, and the most experienced. Comparing to the age of common labors who have to work for twenty years or due sixty five years old, the discharged servicemen still have more than thirty years of productivity so that they need to launch their career as early as possible. This research namely quotes Bandura(1986) social cognition theory and the Maslow demand level theory, and unifies the population statistic variable to discuss occupation of choice which origin true influence retired personnel, and as a reference in the future.

The goal of this study which is based on social cognition, social demand is to probe the noticeable factors that influence retired personnel to choice a new vocation. Through the study, intend to make some recommendations for the personnel who is going to face the subject. Specifically, there are several purposes in this study:
1. Discuss the relevance between population statistic variables and occupation choice. Population statistic varieties include age, marital status, rank, economic situation, seniority, and education level etc. the degree may caused.
2. Understand the troop’s profession, accept the branch level type organization culture, the environment, facing the multiplication after retires from the armed services works and has the different organization culture, known as self-potency, goal approval height to of influence occupation choice.
3. Discusses the individual demand in demand theory to determine the goal which is affected by the occupation choice in the different stage, situation, and time expect.

The main object of this study is the active personnel serving in the Joint Logistics General Storehouse, sends out questionnaire 192, recycles 192, the returns-ratio 100%, effective questionnaire counts 158, the effective questionnaire rate 82.29%, as soon as the recycling completed , encoding and registering to the effective questionnaire, useing the descriptive statistics, reliability, the single factor variety, typical correlation analysis and so on, after the material analysis result, demonstrating:
1.  Population statistic variable:
This research sample has following characteristics: the age take 41 years old above as most, accounts for 34.2%; the marital status take married as most, accounts for 51.3%; the rank of master sergeant below as most, accounts for 48.1%; the financial circumstance take 35,000-45,000 NT. as most, accounts for 38%; the work period of service as most by 5 years below, accounts for 36.7%; the education level – from high school to university as most, accounts for 62.7%.
2.  No remarkable difference between social cognition and population demand theory in statistic variable.
3.  Age, marital status, rank, and work period of service has the difference and the rest of population statistic variable and occupation choice without remarkable difference.
4.  Social cognition and demand theory:
This research confirms the social cognition and the demand theory related, by the canonical correlation model society cognition self-potency overlap coefficient is 59.927%, also the explanation quantity reaches as high as 94.62%; the lower demand level, the stronger intensity, higher level belonging to psychological element, its requirement endless. (Xu Shijun,1999)
5.  Social cognition and occupation choice:
This research confirms the self-potency and the occupation choice related by the canonical correlation model society cognition self-potency overlap coefficient 5.827%, also the self-potency explaining the quantity reaches as high as 72.82%, proofing mutually with the Albert Bandura(1977) theory.
6.  Demand theory and occupation choice:
In this research confirms the demand theory and the occupation choice related by self-realization, respect demand, social demand, security requirements of the canonical correlation model demand theory.This research demonstrated occupation choice not only the basic physiological demand but also other factors, the self-realization most really, meaning  the perspective consideration to the professional is far more than physiological demand.

The conclusion of this research account for some variables such as age, marriage, rank, and seniority is affected notably. Further more, self-potency of the social cognition is highly affected within the correlation analysis of social cognition, demand theory, and occupation choice. Social cognition may be used to the discussion of external factor which affect the behavior through self-potency and solution-expect. There are several recommendations as the reference when take job: 1)
中文摘要………………………………………………………………………………I
英文摘要……………………………………………………………………………III
誌謝……………………………………………………………………………V
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………VI
表目錄………………………………………………………………………………VII
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………IX
壹、緒論………………………………………………………………………………1
一、研究背景與動機………………………………………………………………1
二、研究目的………………………………………………………………………6
三、研究流程………………………………………………………………………8
四、研究範圍與對象………………………………………………………………9
五、研究限制………………………………………………………………………9
六、名詞定義………………………………………………………………………9
七、論文架構………………………………………………………………………12
貳、文獻探討與相關理論……………………………………………………………14
一、社會認知理論…………………………………………………………………14
二、需求理論……………………………………………………………………20
三、職業選擇理論…………………………………………………………………25
參、研究方法…………………………………………………………………………32
一、設計研究架構…………………………………………………………………32
二、研究變數之操作型定義………………………………………………………33
三、研究假設………………………………………………………………………35
四、問卷設計………………………………………………………………………36
五、預測過程及結果………………………………………………………………38
六、研究方法………………………………………………………………………40
肆、實證與分析結果…………………………………………………………………42
一、人口統計變項描述性統計……………………………………………………42
二、單因子變異數分析結果………………………………………………………47
三、典型相關分析…………………………………………………………………66
四、研究假設與實證結果………………………………………………………77
伍、結論與建議………………………………………………………………………79
一、結論與建議……………………………………………………………………79
二、研究限制與後續研究建議……………………………………………………83
[參考文獻]…………………………………………………………………………86
附錄問卷………………………………………………………………………90
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