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研究生: 李明航
研究生(外文): Ming-Harng Lee
論文名稱: 強健性浮水印之研究
論文名稱(外文): Study on Robust Watermark Technology
指導教授: 洪盟峰
指導教授(外文): Mong-Fong Horng
學位類別: 碩士
校院名稱: 樹德科技大學
系所名稱: 資訊工程學系
論文出版年: 2007
畢業學年度: 95
語文別: 中文
論文頁數: 61
中文關鍵詞: 浮水印漢明碼DCT強健性
外文關鍵詞: watermarkhamming coderobustDCT
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本論文針對空間域、頻域兩個領域各提出可利用漢明碼修正錯誤之浮水印技術與可容忍高壓縮率之強健性DCT 浮水印法。空間域方面提出利用漢明碼來保護嵌入的浮水印,並將編碼的資料分散地隱藏在圖像裡,使得即使圖像在傳輸過程中損壞或遭惡意破壞,仍儘可能地保存原有浮水印。因此使得浮水印的強健性有所提升。另外,在頻域方面,我們的研究中發現:利用離散餘弦轉換(DCT)進行影像壓縮及解壓縮處理時,影像區塊內的直流成份(DC)具有高度的強健性,因此我們利用此一頻域的特性,開發可容忍高壓縮率的浮水印法。使得浮水印經過影像處理時所需要的壓縮程序時,仍可以保留高品質的浮水印。並實驗驗證本文提出之浮水印法對於抵抗圖像區塊裁剪、雜訊干擾以及圖像JPEG 壓縮之強健性。從實驗中可發現空間域浮水印法對於雜訊干擾的強健性優於頻域浮水印法,而頻域浮水印法對於圖像區塊裁剪和JPEG 壓縮則優於空間域浮水印法。並且,本論文將Su 等人的研究與本論文所提出的方法做比較,發現在壓縮實驗部份,本論文提出的方法於同樣Q 值為15 條件下,所取出之浮水印與原浮水印有83%之相似度,優於Su 的最高80%的相似度。而與葛萬成等人的研究比較中,在27.77:1 的壓縮比下仍可取出與原浮水印有83%以上的相似度,優於葛在27.5:1 的相似度82.91%証明本方法在JPEG 圖像壓縮的強健性優於Su 與葛所提出的方法,可容忍於高壓縮率。
In this thesis, a spatial-domain and a frequency-domain watermarking techniques are proposed to improve the robustness of watermark hidden in images against the attacks including compression, cutting, and pepper-salt noise. In the spatial domain approach, the technique of hamming code is employed to protect the watermark spread-hiding in images. This hybrid scheme can effectively maintain the integrity of
hidden watermark, even corrupted in either transmission corrupt or malicious attack. Besides, in frequency-domain watermark technology, the DC component of the frequency conversion of an image has the feature of robustness. Thus, a DC-component based watermarking is proposed to overcome the watermark distortion caused by image compression. To evaluate the performance of the proposed schemes, we use the standard image database to conduct a series of experiments to compare and to analyze the spatial domain and frequency domain schemes. The experimental results depict that (1) the spatial-based scheme has a better robustness than the frequency-based scheme in case of random noise (2) the frequency-based scheme has a better robustness than the spatial-based scheme in cases of cutting and compression attacks. Besides, comparing to the previous related works, the proposed schemes have a higher similarity of the recovered watermarks than before. Thus, the improvement of watermark robustness is properly verified.
摘要.................................................................................................................................i
A B S T R A C T ...........................................................................................................ii
目錄...............................................................................................................................iii
圖目錄............................................................................................................................v
表目錄............................................................................................................................vii
一、緒論.......................................................................................................................1
1.1 前言...........................................................................................................................1
1.2 研究動機及目的.....................................................................................................3
1.3 綱要簡介.................................................................................................................3
二、文獻探討...............................................................................................................4
2.1 何謂浮水印............................................................................................................4
2.1.1 浮水印起源........................................................................................................ 4
2.1.2 理想浮水印應有特性........................................................................................ 5
2.2 浮水印分類,以嵌入方式區分...........................................................................6
2.2.1 空間域(Spatial domain)浮水印法............................................................... 6
2.2.2 頻域(Frequency domain)浮水印法.............................................................. 6
2.3 現在浮水印分類...................................................................................................7
2.3.1 易碎浮水印(Fragile Watermark).................................................................. 7
2.3.2 半易碎浮水印(Semi-fragile Watermark) ..................................................... 8
2.3.3 強健型浮水印(Robust Watermark).............................................................. 8
2.4 國內外相關研究...................................................................................................8
2.5 常見浮水印攻擊方法...........................................................................................9
2.6 文獻回顧..............................................................................................................12
三、研究方法...............................................................................................................21
3.1 可利用漢明碼修正錯誤之浮水印技術.............................................................21
3.1.1 漢明碼介紹................................................................................................. 21
3.1.2 可利用漢明碼修正錯誤之浮水印技術之研究方法................................. 23
3.2 可容忍高壓縮率之強健性DCT 浮水印法.......................................................29
3.2.1 餘弦轉換(DCT)簡介.................................................................................. 29
3.2.2 圖像壓縮介紹............................................................................................. 31
3.2.3 可容忍高壓縮率之強健性DCT 浮水印之研究方法............................... 36
四、實驗.......................................................................................................................42
4.1 實驗目的............................................................................................................42
4.2 實驗環境.............................................................................................................42
4.3 實驗結果.............................................................................................................43
4.3.1 空間域與頻域浮水印加入隨機雜訊之實驗............................................. 43
4.3.2 空間域與頻域浮水印隨機區塊裁剪之實驗............................................. 46
4.3.3 空間域與頻域浮水印壓縮圖像之實驗..................................................... 51
4.3.4 實驗結果分析與比較................................................................................. 52
五、結論.......................................................................................................................57
參考文獻.......................................................................................................................59
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