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研究生: 曾瀞儀
研究生(外文): Ching-I Tseng
論文名稱: 學前融合班級教師對自閉症幼兒特徵行為處理策略之研究
論文名稱(外文): A study on the handling strategies of preschool inclusive teachers to the characteristic behavior of autistic children
指導教授: 張翠娥
指導教授(外文): Dr.Tsuey-Er Jang
學位類別: 碩士
校院名稱: 樹德科技大學
系所名稱: 幼兒保育學系
論文出版年: 2005
畢業學年度: 93
語文別: 中文
論文頁數: 143
中文關鍵詞: 自閉症學前特教融合教育教學策略
外文關鍵詞: AutismEarly children special educationInclusive educationTeaching strategies
相關次數:
  • 被引用:5
  • 點閱:237
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學前融合班級教師對自閉症幼兒特徵行為處理策略之研究

摘        要

本研究採用質性取向的研究法,透過實地觀察與半結構訪談瞭解幼稚園、托兒所學前融合班教師及學前特殊教育教師處理自閉症幼兒特徵行為的策略,以及學前融合班教師處理過程所面臨的困境與因應策略。研究者分別從自閉症兒童行為評量表、融合班級幼兒行為觀察日誌、自閉症兒童行為困擾與處理評量、以及教師訪談引導題綱等資料,進行三角檢驗(triangulation)等資料評估處理,盡可能透過多元管道對目前已經建立的結論進行檢驗,以提高研究的可信度與真實性。本研究發現如下:
初接班級教師對自閉症幼兒有不同的觀感與態度,有些欣然接受,有些會擔憂、被動。入班後教師的觀點與態度會因應個案行為特質而改變。教師會尋求解決策略並且增進特教專業知能。透過協同教學討論可增進教師信心。
教師選用策略及其原因包括:(1)促進能力與學習之運用策略:如「外在提示策略運用」、「結構性教學策略運用」以及「建立班級常規策略的運用」等,預期這些策略可以協助自閉症幼兒在認知學習過程能專注且全面性的吸收整體訊息,產生整合以及創新的能力;(2)強化社會溝通之策略:如「以溝通為基礎的行為處理策略運用」、「隨機教學策略運用」、「互補式教學策略運用」與「同儕介入策略運用」等,預期這些策略可以教導自閉症幼兒運用適當的溝通技能表達他們的需求,以及促進自閉症幼兒社會互動技巧在量與質方面的提升,減少被排拒於同儕之外所出現的不當情緒反應;(3)偏差行為之輔導策略:如「溫和性的介入策略運用」、「反應中斷策略運用」、「協同教學策略運用」以及「給予空間與等待」等,預期這些策略能以最少的中斷制止課程進行時的干擾行為、打斷行為的鎖鏈或中斷此行為產生的增強效果,以降低在課程中所發生的不當行為反應,協助自閉症幼兒適應環境。
融合班級教師處理特徵行為問題面臨之困境包括:(1)個案能力無法提升;(2)使用策略無法呈現穩定效果或無效;(3)園所支援不足,教師能力有限等。因應策略方面,包括:(1)建立多元親師溝通管道;(2)善加運用資源;(3)教學心態的調適。
A study on the handling strategies of preschool inclusive teachers to the characteristic behavior of autistic children

Abstract

Qualitative study was used in this research. In order to understand the strategies of preschool inclusive teachers and preschool special educators of the kindergartens and preschools to the characteristic behavior of autistic children, practical observations and semi-structured interviewing were conducted. The difficulties and treatments of preschool inclusive teachers during handling process were also included. The researchers gathered data from behavior assessment of autistic children, observation diary of children in inclusive class, assessment of behavior problems and treatment for autistic children and teacher interviews to evaluating the data. Multiple ways were used to examine the present conclusions to enhance the credibility and factuality of this study.
The beginning teachers had different viewpoints and attitudes to the autistic children. Some were pleasure and others were worried and passive. After entering the classroom, the teachers’ perspectives were changed to adequate the characteristics of the case.  The teachers looked for the solutions, and the knowledge about special education of them was increased. The teachers’ confidence would be strengthened by discussions on team teaching.
The strategies selected by the teachers and the reasons for selection, including (1) promoting skills and learning, such as extrinsic cues, structured teaching, and constructing class norms. These strategies were expected to help autistic children to be concentrated and gain whole information during the process of recognition learning to generate comprehensive and innovation abilities; (2) constructing social communication, such as communication-based behavior handling, incidental teaching, complementary teaching and peer-mediated education. These strategies were expected to teach autistic children to express their demands by adequate communication skills and promote quantitatively and qualitatively the social interaction skills to reduce the unsuitable emotional responses due to being disgusted by peers ; (3) guidance and assistance for deviance, such as benign tactic, cessation of response, team teaching and providing space and waiting patiently. These strategies were expected to stop the interfering behavior in the class by least interventions and break off the chain of behavior or the increased effects of stopping this behavior, to reduce inadequate behavior responses in the class and to help autistic children to accommodate the circumstance.
The difficulties and strategies of the inclusive teachers in dealing with characteristic behavior problems, including (1) the abilities of the children could not be enhanced in these cases; (2) the used strategies could not offer stable effects or useless; (3) deficient support from the kindergartens and preschools and limited abilities of the teachers. Proactive strategies were including, (1) establishing multiple parent-teacher communication;(2) using resources well; (3) adjustment of teaching attitude.
目錄

中文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Ⅰ
英文摘要-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Ⅲ
誌謝-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Ⅴ
目錄--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Ⅵ
表次--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Ⅷ
圖次--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Ⅸ
附錄次-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  Ⅹ


第一章  緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機--------------------------------------------------------------  1
第二節 研究目的-----------------------------------------------------------------------  4
第三節 名詞釋義-----------------------------------------------------------------------  5

第二章  文獻探討
第一節 融合教育的意涵與發展-----------------------------------------------------  7
第二節 自閉症幼兒的行為特徵及對班級教師的影響------------------------  15
第三節 自閉症幼兒特徵行為處理策略-------------------------------------------  26

第三章  研究方法
第一節 研究對象-----------------------------------------------------------------------  39
第二節 研究工具-----------------------------------------------------------------------  45
第三節 研究程序-----------------------------------------------------------------------  47
第四節 資料收集與分析處理-------------------------------------------------------  51
第四章  結果與討論
第一節 教師對自閉症學生的看法---------------------------------------------------  61
第二節 教師處理個案特徵行為問題策略及其選用原因-----------------------  66
第三節 教師處理特徵行為問題面臨之困境與因應策略-----------------------  82

第五章  結論與建議
第一節 結論-------------------------------------------------------------------------------  89
第二節 建議-------------------------------------------------------------------------------  95

參考書目
  中文部分------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  101
  英文部分------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  105
附錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  113













表次
表3-1:研究對象概況說明表----------------------------------------------------  41
表3-2:個案基本資料表----------------------------------------------------------  42
表3-3:訪談教師基本資料表----------------------------------------------------  43
表3-4:縱向對比觀察資料-------------------------------------------------------  56
表4-1:選用策略及其選相關資料分析----------------------------------------  67




























圖次

圖3-1:本研究架構流程圖-----------------------------------------------------  48































附錄次
附錄一:資料編碼表-------------------------------------------------------------  113
附錄二:教師同意涵------------------------------------------------------------  114
附錄三:自閉症兒童行為評量表--------------------------------------------  115
附錄四:融合班級幼兒行為觀察日誌(一)(二)------------------  125
附錄五:自閉症兒童行為困擾與處理評量表----------------------------  127
附錄六:教師訪談引導題綱---------------------------------------------------  130
附錄七:行為觀察日誌(一)(二)--------------------------------------  131
附錄八:教師訪談逐字稿-------------------------------------------------------  136
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