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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.stu.edu.tw:80/ir/handle/310903100/887

Title: 傳統建築營造中風水觀之擇判
“Feng Shui” the Thoughts to Select and Decide in Traditional Architecture
Authors: 陳華宗
CHEN HUA TSUNG
Contributors: 建築與古蹟維護研究所
Keywords: 風水理論;社會涵構;環境涵構;原構性
The Feng Shui theory;Social aspect;Environmental aspect;Constitutive
Date: 2006
Issue Date: 2011-05-24 11:52:00 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 高雄市:[樹德科技大學建築與古蹟維護研究所]
Abstract: 摘要
在傳統建築文化與營造環境規劃中,先民大多依經驗的累積與傳承來對環境評量而後興造,伴隨著異質文化之介入與涵養,逐漸從生活經驗中發展出獨特的「風水」(Feng Shui)理論,同時也形成了傳統建築文化豐富的內涵與架構。因此在傳統建築空間營造實踐上,除了講求營建技術本身技巧外,外在形式風格之表情與內在空間實質的意涵,也是構成傳統建築營造精神取向之基石。
以往在各項營造興建文獻中、鮮少提及傳統建築的風水構成與思維評量,探究其原因可能是傳統建築思想起源甚早,早期在建築形式與風格上就已經有很成熟的表現了。因此在營建設計時、承造匠師只需依循「師承語法」的方式就能訂定各種營建尺寸與規制,再依起造者之身份地位與當時社會規制來設計、建造屋宇,其所「指涉」的是在傳統建築文化行為中,透過民俗文化之營造禁忌與條文口訣而興建的一種「營造模數」。
然而在興造前營建思維中,所尋求的是如何讓建築物在自然環境間取得一個平衡與和諧共識,不會因為過份踰越而遭受傷害。畢竟大自然的力量是強大而難以抗衡的,因此先民在面對此一問題時,總是會以謹慎小心的態度去處理它,無論是在城邑規劃到鄉鎮聚落的配置,乃至官邸民宅與陵墓園林設計之運用,「風水」就成了先民對於環境評定與擇判之最高指導原則。
綜上所述,在研究傳統建築的保存維護(或在其延伸的利用)之同時,實際該論述的範圍應包含「社會涵構」與「環境涵構」兩個面向。在傳統營造体系中隱藏於實質意涵下之生活觀,其「指涉」存有於空間營造的「後設」行為與內在思維之精神意涵,在以「維修型」營造為主的「後用」年代上、如何適時將「風水」思維作為居住環境規劃時之評定參酌,活化於現今維修年代中建築「考古」與「修護」計畫時之研判輔佐,其「旨趣」在於尋求隱於傳統建築興造前之原構性(constitutive)的存有。
Abstract
In traditional architectural culture and setting of living environment, ancient people do the environment evaluation depending on the accumulation and distribution of pass experience then start the construction. Accompanied with the merging of different cultures, the unique concept of “Feng Shui” is gradually developed under the accumulated living experience. At the same time, these concepts transform the enrich connotation and structures of traditional architectural culture. Therefore in the practice of the space setting in ancient architectures, we do need to study not only the building techniques but also the appearance of outlook style and connotation of inner space arrangement that is the foundation of the spirits of ancient architectures.
Among the documents related to ancient architectures, it is rare to see the concepts of the constitution and mental evaluation of Feng Shui are applied. The reason might be the theory of ancient architecture is formed much earlier with highly mature performance on outlook forms and styles of the buildings. Therefore, while ancient architect is designing the blue print of the building, he just needs to follow “his master’s ways” to set up dimension figures accompanied with the social status of the owner and followed present social regulations, then he can build a fit building. This is a so-call ”building mode” in the behavior in traditional architectural culture constructed by the taboos and stated or oral regulations of folk’s culture.
However, when we look into the mental works in pre-construct stage, ancient architects are looking for a balance and harmony between the building and the environment by not stepping over the barrier and get hurt. Knowing the fearfulness of the power of the Mother Nature, ancient people cautiously deal with it. This causes “Feng Shui” becomes the ultimate instructions and principles of evaluating the environment while designing and setting space no matter of city, town, government building, civilian house, tomb and garden.
From the above, we can understand while studying the protection and maintenance (or its extension) of the ancient architectures, there are two aspects, “social aspect” and “environmental aspect” that need to be discussed. What the view of life “referring to” the metaphor of the existing in the ancient architecture field is the “post-assumption” behavior and inner spiritual thoughts of the ancients on house space arrangement. In the time of “current user using the ancient architecture” on the purpose of “maintained construction”, the main “interests” are seeking the original constitution of the pre-constructed ideas of the ancients by studying how we can apply their ideas of “Feng-Shui” to the layout of modern living environment and how we can enhance the accuracy of the construction plan for ancient architectures on the aspects of “archeology” and “maintenance”.
Appears in Collections:[建築與環境設計系] 博碩士論文

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