回顧一些輪調式建教合作教育之研究，主要針對實施成效、職場調查以及學生滿意度等議題做探討；在影響學生有效學習因素方面，則從個人與環境因素等議題進行研究；再者，對於學生學習成效之衡量，則偏重於學業成就的探討。然而，輪調式建教合作學生其學習成效衡量的指標應從理論與實務來結合，即從學校與實習廠所吸收的知識與技能具體加以轉化、同化與運用，此與Zahra & Gerard（2002）所提出之動態能耐的觀點相類似。緣此，本研究結合知覺的學習環境、個人屬性與吸收能耐等三個變項探討之間的關聯性。
本研究以吸收能耐做為依變數，參考Zahra & Gerard（2002）所提出之動態能耐的觀點，分為潛在的吸收能耐與實際的吸收能耐兩個構面。以學習環境做為自變數，參考洪寶蓮（1996）；Bishop（1985）；Litwin & Stringer（1968）之觀點，將學習環境分為家庭學習環境、學校學習環境與公司學習環境等三個構面。以個人屬性為中介變數，參考江秋蓮（1995）與楊坤原（1996）所提出之觀點，分為學習動機、學習態度與成就動機等三個構面。並將內外控人格特質、年級、性別與實習次數列為控制變數。
An Empirical Study on Relationship among Learning Environment, Personal Attributes and Absorptive Capacity – An Example of Students from Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management of S School under Rotary Cooperative Education Program
There have some researchers discussing the rotary cooperative education program from the viewpoints of implementation efficiency, workplace survey and students’ satisfaction. They investigated the factors that affected the effective learning of students in the light of personal and environmental factors and paid much attention to students’ academic achievements when they studied the learning performance of students. However, the learning pattern of the students under rotary cooperative-education program is special. Therefore, the students’ ability to combine theory and practice, i.e., whether they are able to convert, assimilate and apply their knowledge and techniques concretely or not, is considered as an index for measuring their learning performance. This is similar to the concept of “dynamic absorptive capacity” submitted by Zahra and Gerard (2002). This study, in respect of the learning environment and personal attributes perceived by the students under rotary cooperative education program, further explores into the relationship among learning environment, personal attributes and absorptive capacity.
This research uses absorptive capacity as a dependent variable in accordance with the concept of dynamic capacity developed by Zahra and Gerard (2002). The absorptive capacity includes two dimensions: potential absorptive capacity and actual absorptive capacity. Learning environment is used as an independent variable, which includes three dimensions: family learning environment, school learning environment and company learning environment according to the studies of Kuang-Hsiung Huang and Mao-Fa Chien (1991), Teh-Xiang Huang (1995). Personal attributes are treated as medium variables and consist of four dimensions: learning motivation, learning attitude, achievement motivation and internal locus of control according to the researches of Qiu-Lian Jiang (1995) and Kun-Yuan Yang (1996). Meanwhile, this study took internal locus of control, grade and sex as control variables.
This study sent questionnaires to 348 persons who are grades 1, 2 and 3 students studying in the Department of Hotel & Restaurant of S School under rotary cooperative education program. The returning rate of the questionnaires was 88.51% with 308 valid samples.
The study results indicate that:
(1) The family- and company-learning environment shows a significantly positive influence on all dimensions of personal attributes (learning motivation, learning attitude and achievement motivation). The school-learning environment shows significantly positive influence on learning motivation and achievement motivation.
(2) The company-learning environment has significantly positive influence on both dimensions of the absorptive capacity (potential absorptive capacity and actual absorptive capacity). The family-learning environment has significantly positive influence on both dimensions of the actual absorptive capacity.
(3) Personal attributes (learning attitude, learning attitude and achievement motivation) have significantly positive influence on both dimensions of the absorptive capacity (potential absorptive capacity and actual absorptive capacity).
(4) The company-learning environment would influence the potential absorptive capacity and the actual absorptive capacity indirectly through learning attitude and achievement motivation. The family-learning environment would influence the actual absorptive capacity indirectly through learning attitude and achievement motivation.
(5) In the aspect of control variables, there is remarkable difference in school- and company-learning environment, personal attributes and absorptive capacity for different grade. There is remarkable difference in learning environment, personal attributes and absorptive capacity for different internal locus of control. There is remarkable difference in learning environment, personal attributes and absorptive capacity for different times of experiment.
Key words: Cooperative education program, learning environment, personal attributes, and absorptive capacity.