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Title: 以整合性的觀點實證研究女性創業之意向-以「飛雁學員」為例
An Empirical Study for Female Entrepreneurs Intention from the Integrating Perspective - Take the “Free & Young Student"" as Example
Authors: 劉德芳
Te-Fang Liu
Contributors: 黃義俊
Yi-Chun Huang
經營管理研究所
Keywords: 女性創業;創業事件之Shapero模型;創業家自我效能;計劃行為理論;社會認知理論
Female Entrepreneurs;Shapero's Model of the Entrepreneurial Event;Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy;Theory of Planned Behavior;Scial Cgnitive Teory
Date: 2006
Issue Date: 2011-05-23 13:40:33 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 高雄市:[樹德科技大學經營管理研究所]
Abstract:   隨著時代及創業環境的變遷、女性追求經濟自主的自覺與呼聲日漸提高,這樣的轉變更有利女性開創自我事業。有鑑於此,行政院青年輔導委員會之「飛雁專案」極力協助女性創業,並針對不同創業需求之女性作差異性輔導,以提升創業成功率。就實務而言,女性創業之議題值得深入探討;從學術而言,回顧相關文獻發現,以理論架構來探討女性創業意向之議題尚不多見,且缺乏整合性的實證研究;因此,激發本研究以整合性的理論觀點來探討女性創業意向。
  在理論整合方面,本研究首先彙整相關創業理論之脈絡,依序為Shapero(1982)創業事件之Shapero模型、Chen et al.(1998)創業家自我效能、Ajzen(1985, 1991)計劃行為理論及Bandura(1986)社會認知理論,並找出理論間之共同點,做整合性的探討。而在架構方面,主要參考葉旭榮(1998)、韓婷婷(1999)、邱家範(2000)、余家斌(2000)、及朱斌妤等(2002)之觀點,將態度解構為自利性及自決性;接續參考Ajzen(1985, 1991)及林家五等(2004)之研究,將外在因素解構為重要關係人與外部環境;最後參考Taylor & Todd(1995b, 1995c)及Pavlou(2002)之研究,將知覺行為控制解構為自我效能及有利條件。
  本研究採問卷調查法,以行政院青輔會-「飛雁學員」為研究對象,共發放1007份問卷,扣除19份被退回,有效回收問卷251份,有效回收率25.4%。本研究利用Pearson相關分析結果發現:創業意向、態度、外在因素與知覺行為控制各構面間均有顯著相關。接著,以從複迴歸分析結果發現:(1)態度變數及自決性構面皆顯著正向影響創業意向;(2)外在因素、知覺行為控制變數及各構面皆正向影響創業意向。從中介效果分析結果發現:(1)外在因素與創業意向的關聯性方面,態度具部分中介效果/自利性不具中介效果/自決性在重要關係人與創業意向的關聯性方面,具完全中介效果;而在外部環境與創業意向的關聯性方面,具部分中介效果;(2)外在因素與創業意向的關聯性方面,知覺行為控制、自我效能及有利條件皆具完全中介效果。本研究並提出一些管理實務上的意涵與後續研究建議。
  Females have higher awareness of and stronger expectation for economic autonomy with the entrepreneurial environment changing and over time. Such changes are more advantageous to females in establishing their own businesses. National Youth Commission of Executive Yuan endeavors to implement “the Free & Young Program” to help females establish their own businesses and offer these females differential guidance based on their different needs so as to raise the rate of success in entrepreneurship. Therefore, in practical, female entrepreneurship is an issue worth further study. In academic, the issue of female entrepreneurs’ intention from theoretical structure was studied seldom in the past, and is also lack of integrated empirical studies. Thus, this study attempts to employ integrated theoretical viewpoints to investigate female entrepreneurs’ intention.
  Firstly, in the aspect of theoretical integration, this study reviews the theories relating to entrepreneurs. They include Shapero’s Model of the Entrepreneurial Event developed by Shapero(1982), Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy developed by Chen et al.(1998), Theory of Planned Behavior developed by Ajzen(1985, 1991) and Social Cognitive Theory developed by Bandura(1986). Then the study finds out the commonplaces among the theories to develop out the integrated research’s structure. In the aspect of dimensions, this study mainly refers to the research of Hsu Jung Yeh(1998), Ting Ting Han(1999), Chia Fan Chiu(2000), Chia Pin Yu (2000), and Ping Yu Chu et al.(2002), and deconstructs the attitude as self-benefiting and self-determining. After that, the study refers to the studies of Ajzen(1985, 1991) and Chia Wu Lin et al.(2004), and deconstructs the external factors as the normative parties and the external environment. Finally, this study refers to the studies of Taylor and Todd(1995b, 1995c) and Pavloou(2002), and deconstructs the perceived behavioral control as the self-efficacy and favorable conditions.
  This study adopts questionnaire survey to investigate the members for “Free & Young Students” of National Youth Commission of Executive Yuan. Totally mailed 1,007 questionnaires, except the 19 blank questionnaires, there were 251 effective questionnaires returned, with an effective return rate of 25.4%. Through Pearson’s analysis, this study finds out the different dimensions of the intention, attitude, external factors, and perceived behavioral control for entrepreneurs are significantly related to each other. From the multiple-regression analysis, this study has the following findings: (1)Both the dimensions of attitude and self-determining have significant positive effects on entrepreneurs’ intention; and (2)The different facets of the external factors and perceived behavioral control have positive effects on entrepreneurs’ intention. From the analysis of mediating effects, it finds that: (1)For the relationship between the external factors and entrepreneurs intention, attitude has partial mediating effect, but self-benefiting does not have mediating effect; in the relationship between the normative parties and entrepreneurs intention, self-determining has complete mediating effect; and for the relationship between the external environment and entrepreneurs intention, there is partial mediating effect; and (2)For the relationship between the external factors and entrepreneurs intention, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy and favorable conditions have complete mediating effects. This study also proposes some management implications for practices as well as some suggestions for the future research.
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