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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.stu.edu.tw:80/ir/handle/310903100/2632

Title: 極輕量RFID雜湊原件與認證機制
Ultralightweight RFID Hash Primitives and Authentication Schemes
Authors: 梁魁元
Kuei-Yuan Liang
Contributors: 資訊工程系碩士班
林峻立
Keywords: 無線射頻識別技術;認證機制;Ultralightweight;遺傳規劃
RFID;authentication;ultralightweight;genetic programming
Date: 2011
Issue Date: 2011-12-01 13:31:26 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 高雄市:[樹德科技大學資訊工程系碩士班]
Abstract: 近年來由於無線射頻識別技術(Radio Frequency Identification, RFID)的蓬勃發展, 使得RFID的應用領域更加廣泛。而根據RFID應用的不同,所使用的RFID成本也會根據使用的應用隨著改變,例如像電子護照、ETC…等,就必須使用高成本的RFID電子標籤。由於高成本的電子標籤具有強大的運算能力來保護使用者的隱私,避免攻擊者從中獲取使用者的相關資料(位置、隱私等)或者破壞電子標籤的有效性。近年來已有學者針對電子標籤的成本進行分類,最著名的是由國內暨南大學簡教授對電子標籤提出的四大分類,根據成本的高低可分為:Full-Fledged>Simple>Lightweight>Ultralightweight。而隨著成本的不同,能支援的安全特性也跟著不同。同時RFID的認證機制也會根據其的成本高低在設計上也會有所不同。本文將針對Ultralightweight類型電子標籤進行RFID認證機制的設計。

Ultralightweight 類型的電子標籤,其中邏輯閘個數大約有5K-10K,而使用在安全相關部分只有250-4K個可以使用。Ultralightweight電子標籤晶片中的邏輯閘數、運算複雜度、能源耗損都是在其他類型中是屬於最低。而在內部晶片中只有提供簡易的運算能力(例如: XOR、AND、OR,等)。在2007年簡教授除了針對電子標籤成本高低進行分類之外同時對Ultralightweight 類型提出認證機制(SASI)。但經由多方學者研究分析指出還是存在一些安全缺陷。而隔年López學者針對SASI進行改善並提出 Gossamer認證機制,但我們發現López學者所設計的認證機制,理念過於複雜導致安全分析不易,因此我們無法分析此認證機制的安全性。因此,本研究基於改善SASI安全性的弱點,並且簡化認證機制的複雜性。本文利用遺傳規劃的方式設計出一個極輕量級的雜湊函數原件,並且在有限的資源中設計在Ultralightweight RFID認證機制上。因此,本論文研究成果有二:

(1) 利用遺傳規劃的方式設計出一個極輕量的Hash Function,並且在設計認證機制的同時可以達到簡化目的並且具有高度安全性。

(2) 設計出一個Ultralightweight RFID認證機制,並且能有效抵擋SASI認證機制所遭遇的安全性問題。而在效能部分,不管是在晶片中的邏輯閘數、運算複雜度或Clock Cycle都能符合在一個Ultralightweight電子標籤中。
Recently by the rapid progress of Radio Frequency Identification technologies, extensive RFID applications have been developed. According to different RFID applications, the cost of RFID used in RFID applications is changed in accordance with the RFID application . For example e-passports and , ETC, must use high-cost RFID tags. The high-cost RFID tags with strong computing power can protect user privacy and prevent the attacker from obtaining user information (location, privacy, etc.) or destroying the effectiveness of tags. Recent researchers have been classified the cost of tags. The most famous is Professor Chien from Jinan University who divides tags into four categories, according to the level of cost: Full-Fledged > Simple > Lightweight > Ultralightweight.
RFID tag with different cost , also support different security level. Therefore, the design of RFID authentication is change according to different cost of RFID. This paper will focus on the design of RFID authentication scheme with ultralightweight tags.

There are about 5K-10K logic gates in an ultralightweight tag, and only 250-4Kcan be used for security function. In the chip of ultralightweight tag, the mumber of logic gates, computational complexity and, energy dissipation are the lowest than the other types of tags. The ultralightweight tag only provides simple operations like XOR, AND, OR, etc. In 2007.
Chien proposed an ultralightweight RFID authentication scheme (SASI). However, several researches pointed out that SASI has some security flaws. The next year, López proposed Gossamer authentication scheme to improve SASI. But we found that the design of López authentication scheme design is too complex to analyze its security. Therefore, this research is based on improving the SASI security weaknesses, and simplifies the complexity of authentication scheme.

We use genetic programming to design an ultralightweight hash function primitive, and to design an ultralightweight RFID authentication scheme base on the Ultralightweight hash function primitive. The major research results include:

(1) We use genetic programming approach to design an ultralightweight hash function, and design an authentication scheme with simplified design high security.
(2) We design an ultralightweight RFID authentication scheme which can effectively resist the SASI security problems. In chip performance, the number of logic gates , the computational complexity and need of Clock cycle can conform to ultralightweight tags
Appears in Collections:[資訊工程系(所) ] 博碩士論文

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