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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ir.lib.stu.edu.tw:80/ir/handle/310903100/2455

Title: 自閉症兒童之一般手足的壓力與因應方式之探討
The Study on the Stress and Coping Strategies of The Well-Siblings of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders.
Authors: 柯菀榕
Wan-Jung Ko
Contributors: 兒童與家庭服務系
胡秀妁(Hsiu-Shuo Hu)
Keywords: 自閉症兒童、一般手足、壓力、因應
Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders、Well-Sibling、Stress、Coping
Date: 2011
Issue Date: 2011-12-01 11:25:39 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 高雄市:[樹德科技大學兒童與家庭服務系]
Abstract: 本研究主要目的在探討與瞭解自閉症兒童之一般手足的壓力與因應方式,當確立問題方向與焦點後即本著立意取樣的原則,與質性研究所重視的可信任性,採訪三位自閉症兒童之一般手足、父母親和一般手足的老師以符合三角檢驗的要求。訪談過程根據文獻探討和前導性預訪的結果所擬定的半結構訪談大綱來進行,並運用「跨個案分析法」歸納、整理個案之異同處,接著以最厚實的詮釋方式深入討論與分析其內容。
研究結果發現自閉症兒童之一般手足的壓力大致可分為三大類型:第一類是「自我要求」的壓力,此壓力乃因自閉症兒童的特質而造成一般手足與其互動過程中自我概念的衝突,其中包含有日常生活的干擾、自閉症兒童之不適當行為、對自閉症手足安全顧慮以及自我在家庭的存在價值等;第二類是「父母親期待」的壓力,此壓力係指父母親對於一般手足的期望,其中包含分擔照顧自閉症兒童的責任、擔任未來照顧者之任務、或被迫提前學習獨立的要求等;第三類是「社會文化的壓力」,此壓力係指他人或同儕異樣的眼光及態度。整體而言,自閉症兒童之一般手足所覺察的壓力對其本身有正負面的影響,且與父母親的教養態度息息相關。在正面影響部分,當父母親能接受自閉症兒童的特質,採用積極的教養態度時,不僅有助於提升一般手足的照顧技巧及對自閉症兒童的包容度,而且使一般手足發展出獨立與同理心的人格特質。然而,負面影響部分則是父母對於一般手足的心理需求與日常生活照顧的不足引發一般手足的嫉妒與不平;而且休閒外出活動的限制也剝奪了一般手足的社會生活。
此外,一般手足的內在自我效能會影響其因應方式,自我效能感較高的一般手足會認為自己可以處理自閉症兒童的困擾行為或他人異樣的眼光,因而採取「積極保護」的姿態,藉著轉移話題或改變障礙名稱的方式向他人解釋自閉症兒童的行為,希望別人能同理其處境;而自我效能感較低的一般手足則會採取「消極迴避」的態度回應,對自閉症兒童的行為不諒解,選擇孤立自己或擴大爭執、搶奪及打鬧的行為等。在面對壓力的因應上,一般手足的外在社會支持大部份來自父母親,這也印證家庭系統的理論,家庭成員的互動是彼此影響的。
Department of Child Care & Family Studies (Original Early Childhood Care and Education), Shu-Te University

Student:Wan-Jung Ko Advisor:Dr. Hsiu-Shuo Hu
The Study on the Stress and Coping of Well-siblings of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders.
Abstract
This study was designed to investigate and depict the awareness of stress and coping of well-siblings of children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). In order to assure the reliability of this qualitative research, after delineating main scope of the study, purposeful sampling was employed. Three well-siblings of ASD, their parents, and well-siblings’ elementary school teachers were interviewed to reach rigorous triangulation principle. According to the literature review and a pilot study, semi-structured interview outlines were developed to collect the data. The thickness and rich interpretation of research results were attained by using cross-case analysis to analyze; induce the similarities and differences among three cases.
The results showed that there were three types of stress of well-siblings of children with ASD. Firstly, was the stress of well-siblings’ striving the best. This stress resulted in the self-concept of interaction of well-siblings and children with ASD entailing conflict due to the characteristics of the children with ASD. The conflict of self-concept in the interactive process including daily interference, inappropriate behaviors of the children with ASD, the safety concerns about children with ASD, and the self- value as a family member. Secondly, was to identify the stress of parents’ expectations. The expectations for well-siblings included sharing the responsibility of looking after children with ASD, being a future caregiver, and being independent individuals. Lastly, was the stress of social culture resulting from the peculiar perception and attitude of peers. To be noted that the awareness of the stress of well-siblings of children with ASD had both positive and negative effects on themselves; however, it was related to the child-rearing practice. Consistent with family system theory, when parents willingly accepted the characteristics of the children with ASD and took positive child-rearing practice, the following positive impacts were shown in well-siblings, such as caregiving skills, acceptance towards the children with ASD, independence, and empathy. There were several negative impacts including jealousy, unfair feeling, and limited social life due to the demanding of children with ASD in parents.
In addition, well-siblings’ internal self-efficacy played an important role on their coping, the higher self-efficacy the well-siblings had, the more confident they would think that they could deal with all the problems and inconvenience caused by the children with ASD. As a result, they took proactive attitude by changing subject while talking to peers or choosing alternative name instead of ASD. However, once the well-siblings had lower self-efficacy they would take negative avoidance as a response, furthermore, they couldn’t tolerate the inappropriate behaviors of children with ASD, and choose self-isolated or display challenging behaviors. Besides, the external social support from parents enhanced well-siblings’ coping. This interactive effect among family members did validate family system theory.

Key words:Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders 、Well-Sibling、Stress、Coping
Appears in Collections:[兒童與家庭服務系(所)] 博碩士論文

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