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Title: 電子化採購績效評估準則之建構與驗證
Construction and Verification of the Performance Evaluation Criteria of E-procurement
Authors: 李勝棋
Contributors: 資訊管理研究所
Keywords: 網際網路;績效評估準則;電子化採購;供應鏈;電子交易市集
Internet;performance evaluation criteria;electronic procurement;supply chain;electronic marketplace
Date: 2003
Issue Date: 2011-05-26 11:10:49 (UTC+8)
Publisher: 高雄市:[樹德科技大學資訊管理研究所]
Abstract: 企業營運的各種活動中,採購活動是取得物料的主要工作,尤其是以生產為主的製造業更必須著重於完善的採購作業上,因為此階段的延遲、錯誤,會涉及到後續的生產、銷售等活動的安排,所以採購的重要性不可言喻。同時,尋找與評估供應商績效會是整個採購作業的首要步驟,製造商唯有挑選出合適的供應商才能下訂單,再由供應商準備物料的供給動作。挑選供應商之前,買方必須具備多樣的評估準則來挑選供應商;而供應商績效表現的項目越詳細,所蒐集到的資訊越能精確評估供應商的潛在能力。
當企業開始使用網際網路技術來改造營運時,對內與員工利用內部網路進行作業的協調,對外與合作夥伴透過外部網路來執行交易。藉由電子化的過程,轉型後的企業將能夠有效推動產業供應鏈的整合,並改善買賣雙方的銷售及採購活動來進行電子商務。同時,買方能夠從電子交易市集中,挑選出更多的供應商。
本研究目的是當製造商進入虛擬的交易市集來採購物料時,試著建構一套績效衡量的工具,來作為買方挑選供應商的參考依據。同時,雖然電子化採購能夠解決部分傳統採購的缺失,並提供製造商於採購交易模式上的另一項選擇,不過目前新的交易模式對多數的廠商而言,仍處於導入、測試的階段,於是本研究另一個目的是探討電子化採購是否能夠提升買方的挑選績效。
為了達到上述研究目的,本研究以國內製造產業為調查對象,藉由供應鏈管理以及企業電子化的相關理論來建構研究架構,再以問卷調查所獲得的資訊進行實證研究。
研究結果發現,在線上採購的環境中,製造廠商是以價格、品質以及夥伴關係作為衡量供應商績效的重要指標,不同於過去傳統採購強調以品質、價格、交期作為績效指標的觀念。同時,企業規模的大小加上企業電子化程度、採購交易模式的改變,這三項因素同時會影響採購人員於績效評估準則以及提升挑選績效兩者看法上的差異。
本研究進一步發現,在企業電子化的活動中,公司職員在工作中上網的頻率高低,加上公司投資在資訊科技的程度多寡,均會直接影響到買方是否與上游供應商進行電子化採購的意願。最後,本研究發現在各種採購活動中,當買方輸入訂單資料以及招標方式的電子化程度越高,就越容易提升買方挑選供應商的績效。
In all kinds of activities of business operations, purchase activity is the major work to obtain materials. Especially product-based manufacturers must put emphasize on perfect purchase operations. As result of the delay and wrong stages effect production and sale activities to fix up, purchase activity is very important. In the meantime, searching and evaluating supplier performance is the first step of all purchase activity. Manufacturers start to order after selecting suitable suppliers, and the suppliers will prepare materials then. Before selecting suppliers, buyers must prepare multiple evaluation criteria to select. The more the items of supplier performance are more detailed, the more accurate the information about their latent capabilities is.
  When enterprises start to transform their business processes by using Internet technology, they will process the operating coordination by Intranet with their own employees in the enterprise and they will administer trade by Extranet with their own cooperative partners. Relying on electronic processes, the enterprises which have become electronic business will be able to advance effectively integration of supply chain. Furthermore, electronic business will improve sale and purchase activities between buyers and sellers. At the same time, buyers will be able to select suppliers from the electronic marketplace.
  The goal of the research is based of the manufacturers in Taiwan. When buyers enter the fictitious marketplaces to purchase materials, it is trying to construct the performance evaluation criteria that can use for reference tools of select suppliers. Although electronic procurement can solve one part of mistakes and offer another choice of trade models, this new trade model still lies in entering and testing stages for the most manufacturers now. Another purpose of the research will further discover, electronic procurement maybe promote select performance for the buyers.
  In order to reach the said, the study relies on theories of supply chain management and electronic business to build a framework. Then the data which obtains by the questionnaire survey will do the empirical study.
  The result of research has discovered that manufacturers depend on the quality, price and partner relationship are used for the important metrics of evaluating suppliers’ performance. The metrics is different from traditional one that has focused on the quality, price and delivery which are used for the performance metrics in the past.
  In any kinds of electronic activities, the research discovers the employees who browse the Internet at work and the enterprise invests the information technology which will effect directly, when buyers practice electronic procurement with their suppliers. Finally, in any kinds of purchase activities, the research also discovers that the ways of order-entry approach and public biding approaches are more electronic, the performance of selecting suppliers is better.
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